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  • 茶叶知识的介绍
  • 本站编辑:杭州领顺实业有限公司发布日期:2019-11-20 21:41 浏览次数:

茶属双子叶植物,约30属,500种,分布于热带和亚热带地区,我国有14属,397种,主产长江以南各地,其中茶属Camellia和树属Schima等均极富经济价值。乔木或灌木;叶互生,单叶,革质,无托叶;花常两性,稀单性,单生或数朵聚生,腋生或顶生;萼片5-7,覆瓦状排列;花瓣通常5,稀4至多数,覆瓦状排列;雄蕊极多数,稀少数,分离或多少合生;子房上位,稀下位,2-10室,每室有胚珠2至多颗;果为一蒴果,或不开裂而核果状。我们一般所说的茶叶就是指用茶树的叶子加工而成,可以用开水直接泡饮的一种饮品!

茶叶的分类

中国现代名茶有数百种之多,根据其历史分析,有下列三种情况:

有一部分属传统名茶,如西湖龙井、安溪铁观音、洞庭碧螺春、黄山毛峰、太平猴魁、恩施玉露、信阳毛尖、六安瓜片、屯溪珍眉、老竹大方、祁门红茶、庐山云雾、蒙洱茶、桂平西山茶、君山银针、云南普洱茶、苍梧六堡茶、政和白毫银针、白牡丹、珍再享、闽北水仙、武夷岩茶、武当道茶、凤凰水仙、古丈毛尖等。

另一部分是恢复历史名茶,也就是说历史上曾有过这类名茶,后来未能持续生产或已失传的,经过研究创新,恢复原有的茶名。如渠江薄片、休宁松罗、涌溪火青、敬亭绿雪、九华毛峰、曾侯银剑茶、汉家刘氏茶、龟山岩绿、蒙顶甘露、仙人掌茶、天池茗毫、贵定云雾、青城雪芽、蒙顶黄芽、阳羡雪芽、鹿苑毛尖、霍山黄芽、顾渚紫笋、径山茶、雁荡毛峰、日铸雪芽、金奖惠明、金华举岩、东阳东白等等。

还有大部分是属于新创名茶,如婺源茗眉、蒙洱月芽、蒙洱太空茶、南京雨花茶、云雾毛尖茶、无锡毫茶、茅山青峰、天柱剑毫、岳西翠兰、齐山翠眉、望府银毫、临海蟠毫、千岛玉叶、遂昌银猴、都匀毛尖、高桥银峰、金水翠峰、永川秀芽、上饶白眉、湄江翠片、安化松针、遵义毛峰、文君绿茶、峨眉毛峰、雪芽、雪青、仙台大白、早白尖红茶、黄金桂、秦巴雾毫、汉水银梭、八仙云雾、南糯白毫、午子仙毫等等。

1.以色泽(或制作工艺)分类

金茶发酵中金菌异化(发酵度80——100m) 琥珀金茶

金茶最早发现于数千年前,《中茶志》中曾有提及。极品金茶遍体金色,泡出茶汤为琥珀金色。纯天然生成,主要产地在湖南、福建。目前仅有湖南保持少量金茶原叶产地。金茶极其珍贵稀有。自汉朝起是皇室贡品。但是由于产量非常稀少而知名度低。金茶是中国顶级茶叶的最高代表,也是中国茶文化和技术的最高体现。经过数月或经年的自然发酵,金茶原叶中营养物质会凝聚成金色菌体,覆盖于金茶表面。菌体经研究为冠状散突菌,通俗来讲就是年久的灵芝表面孢子所含的抗衰老物质。古人已经察觉到金茶的功效,所以金茶又被称为“茶灵芝”、“金灵芝”、或者“瑶池仙茶”。大量的金茶原叶只可能有少部分茶叶能够适度发酵,产生均匀的金色菌体。

绿茶 不发酵的茶(发酵度为零) 黄山毛峰、六安瓜片、龙井茶 、碧螺春、 信阳毛尖等。

这是我国产量最多的一类茶叶,其花色品种之多居世界首位。绿茶具有香高、味醇、形美、耐冲泡等特点。其制作工艺都经过杀青一揉捻一干燥的过程。由于加工时干燥的方法不同,绿茶又可分为炒青绿茶、烘青绿茶、蒸青绿茶和晒青绿茶。绿茶是我国产量最多的一类茶叶,全国18个产茶省(区)都生产绿茶。我国绿茶花色品种之多居世界之首,每年出口数万吨,占世界茶叶市场绿茶贸易量的70%左右。我国传统绿茶--眉茶和珠茶,向以香高、味醇、形美、耐冲泡,而深受国内外消费者的欢迎。

黄茶 微发酵的茶(发酵度为10-20m) 霍山黄芽 蒙洱银针

在制茶过程中,经过闷堆渥黄,因而形成黄叶、黄汤。分“黄芽茶”(包括湖南洞庭湖君山银芽、四川雅安、名山县的蒙顶黄芽、安徽霍山的霍山黄芽)、“黄小茶”(包括湖南岳阳的北港在、湖南宁乡的沩山毛尖、浙江平阳的平阳黄汤、湖北远安的鹿苑)、“黄大茶”(包括的大叶青、安徽的霍山黄大茶)三类。

白茶 轻度发酵的茶(发酵度为20-30m) 白毫银针 白牡丹贡眉

它加工时不炒不揉,只将细嫩、叶背满茸毛的茶叶晒干或用文火烘干,而使白色茸毛完整地保留下来。白茶主要产于福建的福鼎、政和、松溪和建阳等县,有“银针”、“白牡丹”、“贡眉”、“寿眉”几种。

青茶 半发酵的茶(发酵度为30-60m) 铁观音、冻顶乌龙茶、武夷岩茶、武夷肉桂、闽北水仙、八角亭龙须茶、黄金桂、永春佛手、凤凰水仙、大红袍、铁罗汉、白冠鸡、水金龟、文山包种茶等。

青茶(乌龙茶),属半发酵茶,即制作时适当发酵,使叶片稍有红变,是介于绿茶与红茶之间的一种茶类。它既有绿茶的鲜浓,又有红茶的甜醇。因其叶片中间为绿色,叶缘呈红色,故有“绿叶红镶边”之称。但是安溪铁观音的新贵感德铁观音的最新清香制法是没有 “绿叶红镶边”的特征。特别是感德下村(霞云村、霞春村等)更是该做法的典型代表。

红茶 全发酵的茶(发酵度为80-90m) 祁门红茶、荔枝红茶、湖红功夫、滇红功夫、宁红功夫、宜红功夫、越红功夫、川红功夫、政和功夫、闽红功夫、坦洋功夫等。

红茶与绿茶的区别,在于加工方法不同。红茶加工时不经杀青,而是萎凋,使鲜叶失去一部分水分,再揉捻(揉搓成条或切成颗粒),然后发酵,使所含的茶多酚氧化,变成红色的化合物。这种化合物一部分溶于水,一部分不溶于水,而积累在叶片中,从而形成红汤、红叶。红茶主要有小种红茶、工夫红茶和红碎茶三大类。

黑茶 后发酵的茶(发酵度为100m) 湖南黑茶、老青茶、四川边茶、普洱茶、六堡茶等

原料粗老,加工时堆积发酵时间较长,使叶色呈暗褐色。黑茶原来主要销往边区,是藏、蒙、维吾尔等兄弟民族不可缺少的日常必需品。像云南的普洱茶就是其中一种。有“湖南黑茶”、“湖北老青茶”、“广西六堡茶”、四川的“西路边茶”“南路边茶”、云南的“紧茶”、“扁茶”、“方茶”和“圆茶”等品种。

普洱茶因产地旧属云南普洱府(今普洱市),故得名。现在泛指普洱茶区生产的茶,是以公认普洱茶区的云南大叶种晒青毛茶为原料,经过后发酵加工成的散茶和紧压茶。外形色泽褐红,内质汤色红浓明亮,香气独特陈香,滋味醇厚回甘,叶底褐红。有生茶和熟茶之分,生茶自然发酵,熟茶人工催熟。“越陈越香”被公认为是普洱茶区别其他茶类的最大特点,“香陈九畹芳兰气,品尽千年普洱情。”普洱茶是“可入口的古董”,不同于别的茶贵在新,普洱茶贵在“陈”往往会随着时间逐渐升值。

Tea is a double cotyledon plant, about 30 genera, 500 species, distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, China has 14 genera, 397 species, the main production in the south of the Yangtze river, tea Camellia and tree genus Schima and other rich economic value. Trees or shrubs; Leaves alternate, simple, leathery, without stipules; Flowers often bisexual, sparse unisexual, solitary or several clusters, axillary or terminal; Sepals 5-7, imbricate; Petals usually 5, sparse 4 to many, imbricate; Stamens extremely numerous, few, detached or much united; Ovary superior, sparse inferior, 2-10 locules, ovule 2 or more per locules; The fruit is a capsule, or drupaceous without dehiscence. The tea that we say commonly is to point to the leaf that USES tea tree is processed and become, can use boiled water to brew a kind of drink directly!

Classification of tea

There are hundreds of modern famous teas in China. According to the historical analysis, there are three situations as follows:

Some traditional famous teas, such as west lake longjing, anxi tieguanyin, dongting "biluochun", huangshan maofeng tea, taiping monkey chief, enshi high curative value, xinyang maojian tea, luan GuaPian, tunxi Jane eyebrow, old bamboo is natural, qimen county, lushan clouds, MengEr tea, black tea GuiPing xishan, junshan island, silver needle tea, yunnan puer tea, pale, the six fort tea, politics and silver needle, white peony, Jane to enjoy, northern narcissus, the wuyi rock tea, tea wudang road, phoenix narcissus, ancient zhangs maojian tea, etc.

The other part is the restoration of historical famous tea, that is to say, there was such a famous tea in the history, but later failed to continue production or lost, after research and innovation, the restoration of the original name of tea. Such as river chip, unscrew the ROM, ChongXi HuoQing, JingTing green snow, maofeng tea, tea Ceng Houyin sword wah, han liu, turtle rock green tea, tea mengding dew, cacti, tianchi mingyuan, cloud set, qingcheng mountain snow bud, the male snow of mengding yellow bud, bud, deer park maojian tea, huoshan yellow bud, Gu Zhuzi bamboo shoots, jingshan tea, maofeng tea, yandang mountain, snow bud, gold medal mephentermine, Jin Huaju rock, dongyang east white and so on.

And most belong to the new tea, such as wuyuan tea brow, MengEr YueYa cloud, tea, tea made yuhua district nanjing MengEr space, maojian tea tea, wuxi tea, maoshan qingfeng-xiangguang fracture, bl 10 milli sword, YueXi cui LAN, JiShan cui eyebrow, looking house of silvery, linhai PAM, thousand island jade leaf, the local silver monkey, DouYun maojian tea, takahashi silver peak, the goldwater cui feng, yongchuan show bud, shangrao bridled, mai Jiang Cui piece, we pine needles, zunyi maofeng tea, filled with green tea, emei maofeng tea, Snow White bud, fruit, sendai, early white tip of black tea, golden marble, qinba cloud mist, han river silver spindle, the eight immortals, south waxy pekoe, wuzi fairy fine long hair, and so on.

1. Classification by color (or process)

Ferment of gold tea in the strain alienation (fermentation degree 80 -- 100m) amber gold tea

Gold tea was first discovered thousands of years ago, and it was mentioned in the annals of Chinese tea. The best gold tea is covered with gold, and the tea soup is amber gold. Pure natural generation, the main production areas in hunan, fujian. At present, only hunan maintains a small amount of gold tea leaf origin. Gold tea is extremely rare. Royal tribute from han dynasty onwards. But because the production is very rare and low visibility. Gold tea is the highest representative of China's top tea, but also the highest embodiment of Chinese tea culture and technology. After months or years of natural fermentation, the nutrients in the original leaves of golden tea will condense into golden fungus and cover the surface of golden tea. The bacteria is studied as coronal spore, which is the anti-aging substance contained in the spores on the surface of the aged ganoderma lucidum. The ancients have been aware of the efficacy of gold tea, so gold tea is also known as "tea lingzhi", "jin lingzhi", or "yao chi fairy tea". Only a small part of the original leaves of a large number of gold tea can be moderately fermented to produce even golden fungus.

Green tea does not ferment tea (fermentation degree is zero) huangshan maofeng, lu 'an melon slice, longjing tea, biluochun, xinyang majian, etc.

This is a kind of tea that our country produces the most, its design and color breed occupies the first place in the world. Green tea has the characteristics of high flavor, mellow taste, beautiful shape and resistance to brewing. Its production process is through the process of finishing, rolling and drying. Due to different methods of drying during processing, green tea can be divided into Fried green tea, baked green tea, steamed green tea and sun-dried green tea. Green tea is one of the most productive tea in China. China ranks first in the world in the variety of green tea, and exports tens of thousands of tons of green tea every year, accounting for about 70% of the trade volume of green tea in the world tea market. China's traditional green tea - eyebrow tea and pearl tea, to the high flavor, mellow, beautiful shape, resistant to brewing, and deeply welcomed by consumers at home and abroad.

Micro-fermented yellow tea tea (fermentation degree 10-20m) huoshan yellow bud Mongolian erh silver needle

In the process of making tea, after the boring pile of woehuang, thus forming yellow leaves, yellow soup. Points "yellow flower tea" (including the junshan island silver bud, ya 'an, sichuan, hunan dongting mingshan county mengding yellow bud, anhui huoshan huoshan yellow bud), "Huang Xiaocha" (including the north port in hunan yueyang, hunan ningxiang weishan maojian tea, zhejiang pingyang when pingyang, hubei YuanAn deer park), "Huang Dacha" (including the big ye qing, anhui huoshan Huang Dacha) three categories.

White tea slightly fermented tea (fermentation degree is 20-30m) baihao silver needle white peony gongmei

When it is processed, it does not fry or knead. It only dries the tea leaves, which are tender and full of hairs on the back, or dries them slowly, leaving the white hairs intact. White tea is mainly produced in fuding, zhenghe, songxi and jianyang counties in fujian. There are several kinds of "silver needle", "white peony", "gongmei" and "shoumei".

Green tea semi-fermented tea (fermentation degree is 30-60m) tieguanyin, frozen top oolong tea, wuyi rock tea, wuyi cinnamon, northern fujian narcissus, octagon pavilion longshu tea, golden laurel, yongchun Buddha's hand, phoenix narcissus, da hong pao, iron arhat, white cockatrice, water tortoise, wenshan bao species of tea, etc.

Green tea (oolong tea), is a semi-fermented tea, that is, the production of appropriate fermentation, leaves slightly red, is between green tea and black tea between a kind of tea. It has both the freshness of green tea and the sweetness of black tea. Because its leaf is green among, leaf margin shows red, reason has "greenery red edge" say. But anxi tieguanyin's new guanyin feeling DE tieguanyin the latest fragrance method is not "green leaves red edge" characteristics. In particular, gande village (xiayun village, xiachun village, etc.) is a typical representative of this practice.

Full fermented black tea (fermentation degree: 80-90m) qimen black tea, litchi black tea, lake red kungfu, yunnan red kungfu, ning red kungfu, yi red kungfu, sichuan red kungfu, zhenghe kungfu, min red kungfu, tanyang kungfu, etc.

Black tea differs from green tea in processing methods. When black tea is processed, it is not green, but withering, so that fresh leaves lose part of the water, and then kneading (kneading into strips or cut into particles), and fermentation, the tea polyphenols contained oxidation, into red compounds. This compound is partly soluble in water and partly insoluble in water, but accumulates in the leaves and forms red soup, red leaves. Black tea mainly has small black tea, congou black tea and red broken tea three categories.

Black tea after fermentation (fermentation degree of 100m) hunan black tea, old green tea, sichuan edge tea, pu 'er tea, liubao tea, etc

Raw material coarse old, processing accumulation fermentation time longer, so that the leaves were dark brown. Black tea is mainly sold to the border areas, is the Tibetan, Mongolian, uygur and other brothers indispensable daily necessities. Like yunnan's pu 'er tea is one of them. There are "hunan black tea", "hubei old green tea", "guangxi liubao tea", sichuan "west roadside tea", "south roadside tea", yunnan "tight tea", "flat tea", "square tea" and "round tea" and other varieties.

Pu 'er tea because the origin of the old pu 'er prefecture of yunnan (today pu 'er city), so named. Now it refers to the tea produced in pu-erh tea area. It is the loose tea and pressed tea, which is made of sun-dried green tea of yunnan big leaf species in pu-erh tea area. Appearance color is brownish red, endoplasmic red soup color is thick and bright, aroma is distinctive Chen xiang, the taste is mellow and sweet, leaf bottom is brownish red. Raw tea and cooked tea, raw tea natural fermentation, cooked tea artificial ripening. "Jumps over Chen yue sweet" is recognized to be the biggest characteristic of puer tea difference between other tea, "sweet nine Wan Chen fang LAN qi, tastes do one thousand pu-erh tea." Pu-erh tea is an "antique that can be imported". Unlike other teas, pu-erh tea is valued for its freshness.


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