绿茶 不发酵的茶(发酵度为零) 黄山毛峰、六安瓜片、龙井茶 、碧螺春、 信阳毛尖等。
黄茶 微发酵的茶(发酵度为10-20m） 霍山黄芽 蒙洱银针
白茶 轻度发酵的茶(发酵度为20-30m） 白毫银针 白牡丹贡眉
青茶 半发酵的茶(发酵度为30-60m） 铁观音、冻顶乌龙茶、武夷岩茶、武夷肉桂、闽北水仙、八角亭龙须茶、黄金桂、永春佛手、凤凰水仙、大红袍、铁罗汉、白冠鸡、水金龟、文山包种茶等。
红茶 全发酵的茶(发酵度为80-90m） 祁门红茶、荔枝红茶、湖红功夫、滇红功夫、宁红功夫、宜红功夫、越红功夫、川红功夫、政和功夫、闽红功夫、坦洋功夫等。
黑茶 后发酵的茶(发酵度为100m） 湖南黑茶、老青茶、四川边茶、普洱茶、六堡茶等
Tea is a double cotyledon plant, about 30 genera, 500 species, distributed in tropical and subtropical areas, China has 14 genera, 397 species, the main production in the south of the Yangtze river, tea Camellia and tree genus Schima and other rich economic value. Trees or shrubs; Leaves alternate, simple, leathery, without stipules; Flowers often bisexual, sparse unisexual, solitary or several clusters, axillary or terminal; Sepals 5-7, imbricate; Petals usually 5, sparse 4 to many, imbricate; Stamens extremely numerous, few, detached or much united; Ovary superior, sparse inferior, 2-10 locules, ovule 2 or more per locules; The fruit is a capsule, or drupaceous without dehiscence. The tea that we say commonly is to point to the leaf that USES tea tree is processed and become, can use boiled water to brew a kind of drink directly!
Classification of tea
There are hundreds of modern famous teas in China. According to the historical analysis, there are three situations as follows:
Some traditional famous teas, such as west lake longjing, anxi tieguanyin, dongting "biluochun", huangshan maofeng tea, taiping monkey chief, enshi high curative value, xinyang maojian tea, luan GuaPian, tunxi Jane eyebrow, old bamboo is natural, qimen county, lushan clouds, MengEr tea, black tea GuiPing xishan, junshan island, silver needle tea, yunnan puer tea, pale, the six fort tea, politics and silver needle, white peony, Jane to enjoy, northern narcissus, the wuyi rock tea, tea wudang road, phoenix narcissus, ancient zhangs maojian tea, etc.
The other part is the restoration of historical famous tea, that is to say, there was such a famous tea in the history, but later failed to continue production or lost, after research and innovation, the restoration of the original name of tea. Such as river chip, unscrew the ROM, ChongXi HuoQing, JingTing green snow, maofeng tea, tea Ceng Houyin sword wah, han liu, turtle rock green tea, tea mengding dew, cacti, tianchi mingyuan, cloud set, qingcheng mountain snow bud, the male snow of mengding yellow bud, bud, deer park maojian tea, huoshan yellow bud, Gu Zhuzi bamboo shoots, jingshan tea, maofeng tea, yandang mountain, snow bud, gold medal mephentermine, Jin Huaju rock, dongyang east white and so on.
And most belong to the new tea, such as wuyuan tea brow, MengEr YueYa cloud, tea, tea made yuhua district nanjing MengEr space, maojian tea tea, wuxi tea, maoshan qingfeng-xiangguang fracture, bl 10 milli sword, YueXi cui LAN, JiShan cui eyebrow, looking house of silvery, linhai PAM, thousand island jade leaf, the local silver monkey, DouYun maojian tea, takahashi silver peak, the goldwater cui feng, yongchuan show bud, shangrao bridled, mai Jiang Cui piece, we pine needles, zunyi maofeng tea, filled with green tea, emei maofeng tea, Snow White bud, fruit, sendai, early white tip of black tea, golden marble, qinba cloud mist, han river silver spindle, the eight immortals, south waxy pekoe, wuzi fairy fine long hair, and so on.
1. Classification by color (or process)
Ferment of gold tea in the strain alienation (fermentation degree 80 -- 100m) amber gold tea
Gold tea was first discovered thousands of years ago, and it was mentioned in the annals of Chinese tea. The best gold tea is covered with gold, and the tea soup is amber gold. Pure natural generation, the main production areas in hunan, fujian. At present, only hunan maintains a small amount of gold tea leaf origin. Gold tea is extremely rare. Royal tribute from han dynasty onwards. But because the production is very rare and low visibility. Gold tea is the highest representative of China's top tea, but also the highest embodiment of Chinese tea culture and technology. After months or years of natural fermentation, the nutrients in the original leaves of golden tea will condense into golden fungus and cover the surface of golden tea. The bacteria is studied as coronal spore, which is the anti-aging substance contained in the spores on the surface of the aged ganoderma lucidum. The ancients have been aware of the efficacy of gold tea, so gold tea is also known as "tea lingzhi", "jin lingzhi", or "yao chi fairy tea". Only a small part of the original leaves of a large number of gold tea can be moderately fermented to produce even golden fungus.
Green tea does not ferment tea (fermentation degree is zero) huangshan maofeng, lu 'an melon slice, longjing tea, biluochun, xinyang majian, etc.
This is a kind of tea that our country produces the most, its design and color breed occupies the first place in the world. Green tea has the characteristics of high flavor, mellow taste, beautiful shape and resistance to brewing. Its production process is through the process of finishing, rolling and drying. Due to different methods of drying during processing, green tea can be divided into Fried green tea, baked green tea, steamed green tea and sun-dried green tea. Green tea is one of the most productive tea in China. China ranks first in the world in the variety of green tea, and exports tens of thousands of tons of green tea every year, accounting for about 70% of the trade volume of green tea in the world tea market. China's traditional green tea - eyebrow tea and pearl tea, to the high flavor, mellow, beautiful shape, resistant to brewing, and deeply welcomed by consumers at home and abroad.
Micro-fermented yellow tea tea (fermentation degree 10-20m) huoshan yellow bud Mongolian erh silver needle
In the process of making tea, after the boring pile of woehuang, thus forming yellow leaves, yellow soup. Points "yellow flower tea" (including the junshan island silver bud, ya 'an, sichuan, hunan dongting mingshan county mengding yellow bud, anhui huoshan huoshan yellow bud), "Huang Xiaocha" (including the north port in hunan yueyang, hunan ningxiang weishan maojian tea, zhejiang pingyang when pingyang, hubei YuanAn deer park), "Huang Dacha" (including the big ye qing, anhui huoshan Huang Dacha) three categories.
White tea slightly fermented tea (fermentation degree is 20-30m) baihao silver needle white peony gongmei
When it is processed, it does not fry or knead. It only dries the tea leaves, which are tender and full of hairs on the back, or dries them slowly, leaving the white hairs intact. White tea is mainly produced in fuding, zhenghe, songxi and jianyang counties in fujian. There are several kinds of "silver needle", "white peony", "gongmei" and "shoumei".
Green tea semi-fermented tea (fermentation degree is 30-60m) tieguanyin, frozen top oolong tea, wuyi rock tea, wuyi cinnamon, northern fujian narcissus, octagon pavilion longshu tea, golden laurel, yongchun Buddha's hand, phoenix narcissus, da hong pao, iron arhat, white cockatrice, water tortoise, wenshan bao species of tea, etc.
Green tea (oolong tea), is a semi-fermented tea, that is, the production of appropriate fermentation, leaves slightly red, is between green tea and black tea between a kind of tea. It has both the freshness of green tea and the sweetness of black tea. Because its leaf is green among, leaf margin shows red, reason has "greenery red edge" say. But anxi tieguanyin's new guanyin feeling DE tieguanyin the latest fragrance method is not "green leaves red edge" characteristics. In particular, gande village (xiayun village, xiachun village, etc.) is a typical representative of this practice.
Full fermented black tea (fermentation degree: 80-90m) qimen black tea, litchi black tea, lake red kungfu, yunnan red kungfu, ning red kungfu, yi red kungfu, sichuan red kungfu, zhenghe kungfu, min red kungfu, tanyang kungfu, etc.
Black tea differs from green tea in processing methods. When black tea is processed, it is not green, but withering, so that fresh leaves lose part of the water, and then kneading (kneading into strips or cut into particles), and fermentation, the tea polyphenols contained oxidation, into red compounds. This compound is partly soluble in water and partly insoluble in water, but accumulates in the leaves and forms red soup, red leaves. Black tea mainly has small black tea, congou black tea and red broken tea three categories.
Black tea after fermentation (fermentation degree of 100m) hunan black tea, old green tea, sichuan edge tea, pu 'er tea, liubao tea, etc
Raw material coarse old, processing accumulation fermentation time longer, so that the leaves were dark brown. Black tea is mainly sold to the border areas, is the Tibetan, Mongolian, uygur and other brothers indispensable daily necessities. Like yunnan's pu 'er tea is one of them. There are "hunan black tea", "hubei old green tea", "guangxi liubao tea", sichuan "west roadside tea", "south roadside tea", yunnan "tight tea", "flat tea", "square tea" and "round tea" and other varieties.
Pu 'er tea because the origin of the old pu 'er prefecture of yunnan (today pu 'er city), so named. Now it refers to the tea produced in pu-erh tea area. It is the loose tea and pressed tea, which is made of sun-dried green tea of yunnan big leaf species in pu-erh tea area. Appearance color is brownish red, endoplasmic red soup color is thick and bright, aroma is distinctive Chen xiang, the taste is mellow and sweet, leaf bottom is brownish red. Raw tea and cooked tea, raw tea natural fermentation, cooked tea artificial ripening. "Jumps over Chen yue sweet" is recognized to be the biggest characteristic of puer tea difference between other tea, "sweet nine Wan Chen fang LAN qi, tastes do one thousand pu-erh tea." Pu-erh tea is an "antique that can be imported". Unlike other teas, pu-erh tea is valued for its freshness.